SRINAGAR, Kashmir — Syed Ali Geelani, an influential and uncompromising chief of the separatist motion of Kashmir who refused to have interaction with India over the way forward for the troubled Himalayan area, died on Wednesday whereas underneath home arrest in Srinagar, Kashmir’s largest metropolis. He was 91.
His dying was confirmed by his son, Naseem Geelani. He didn’t specify a trigger however mentioned his father had been affected by coronary heart and kidney illness over the previous 20 years and age-related points, together with dementia, just lately.
Even in dying, Mr. Geelani confirmed he may make the area’s Indian-led authorities nervous. The web was shut down throughout the Kashmir valley. Elevated safety forces patrolled empty streets.
The police took away his physique simply hours after he died, Naseem Geelani mentioned, resulting in a quiet funeral for a resistance chief as soon as in a position to summon 1000’s of individuals to the streets to protest.
For years, Mr. Geelani resisted dialogue with India over the way forward for Kashmir, the picturesque valley of eight million individuals, most of them Muslim. Managed by India, the valley can be claimed by Pakistan. Their bitter territorial dispute has fueled a long time of bloodshed.
Mr. Geelani had lengthy argued that the valley ought to fall underneath Pakistan’s management due to its geographical and non secular affinity with the largely Muslim nation. He mentioned India ought to take away its troops from Kashmir and maintain a vote as soon as promised by India’s authorities over whether or not Kashmir must be a part of India or Pakistan, although he hinted in recent times that he would aspect with independence if that possibility had been to prevail in a referendum led by the United Nations.
In a tweet on Thursday, Imran Khan, the prime minister of Pakistan, mentioned Mr. Geelani had “struggled all his life for his individuals and their proper for self willpower.” He mentioned Pakistan would observe an official day of mourning.
Officers in Kashmir and in India’s central authorities, which lengthy regarded Mr. Geelani as a significant hurdle towards resolving the area’s violence, declined to remark. One former authorities official, Satya Pal Malik, whom he had publicly focused along with his rhetoric mentioned he was “variety and really first rate.”
“I’ve fond recollections of him,” mentioned Mr. Malik, the previous governor of Jammu and Kashmir, the state that administered Kashmir till the Indian authorities disbanded it as a part of a regional crackdown two years in the past. Mr. Malik added, “his dying shouldn’t be politicized or exploited politically by any part.”
The Kashmir valley has lengthy been underneath the management of Indian safety forces. In recent times, India’s Hindu-nationalist authorities has made taming Kashmir a prime precedence.
A charismatic chief, Mr. Geelani was usually known as “Bab,” or “father” in Kashmiri, and he received reputation by remaining steadfastly proof against Indian rule. One in style chant throughout demonstrations: “The one who doesn’t bow: Geelani! The one who can’t be purchased: Geelani!”
“He was probably the most acknowledged face of Kashmiri resistance towards India and an iconic political determine,” mentioned Noor Ahmad Baba, a political analyst in Kashmir. “No different political determine from the valley matched his reputation.”
The authorities had lengthy stored Mr. Geelani underneath their watchful eye. With just a few breaks, he had been underneath home arrest for 11 years.
Mr. Geelani’s opposition to participating with New Delhi was at odds with different factions of the All Events Hurriyat Convention, an umbrella group of organizations looking for self-determination for Kashmir. India, he argued, pursued negotiations on the idea that Kashmir was an integral a part of the nation, a place he rejected.
His inflexible anti-negotiation stance at occasions put him at odds even along with his sympathizers in Pakistan. In 2006, Pervez Musharraf, then Pakistan’s army dictator, unveiled an finally unsuccessful four-point components to settle the Kashmir dispute with India. Mr. Geelani rejected it.
Regardless of his reputation in Kashmir, he had many critics who dismissed his usually strict Islamic worldview. In addition they faulted him for failing to help the area’s independence motion, which sparked violence towards Indian forces in 1989.
Syed Ali Shah Geelani was born on Sept. 29, 1929, in Zoori Munz, a village in northern Kashmir, right into a poor household that subsisted on guide labor. He attended college within the city of Sopore. He graduated from highschool in 1945 and went to Lahore, Pakistan, to check the Quran, and he later earned a bachelor’s diploma in Persian literature.
Mr. Geelani was imprisoned in 1962 for 13 months for taking part in anti-India actions. He was arrested once more in 1965 and spent greater than a 12 months in jail for nurturing secret contacts in Pakistan.
The arrests and jailings continued after he joined an Islamist group, Jamaat-e-Islami, and was elected to the state meeting in 1972. Indian authorities seized Mr. Geelani’s passport in 1981 and by no means returned it, barring an exception in 2006 to let him journey to Mecca in Saudi Arabia for the Muslim hajj pilgrimage.
Within the Nineteen Eighties, he started calling for public protests and resistance and located a receptive viewers amongst offended Kashmiris. After violence broke out in 1989, the start of greater than 30 years of battle, Mr. Geelani turned maybe the motion’s most seen chief. His requires employees to strike may shut down exercise within the Kashmir valley for days. He was a fixture on the funerals of those that died preventing Indian forces.
Indian authorities generally tried to get Mr. Geelani to ease tensions. In 2016, protests and violence eruption after Indian police killed a militant commander, Burhan Wani. In response, Mr. Geelani and different resistance leaders laid out “protest calendars” that dictated when demonstrations can be held and when retailers would open and shut. Indian officers tried to speak him and different leaders out of it, however Mr. Geelani refused to participate, calling the outreach a “mere optic for Indian media.”
Mr. Geelani’s affect ebbed in recent times. Final 12 months he resigned because the chief of the Hurriyat Convention, citing infighting inside the group and its incapacity to cease India’s 2019 crackdown, which swept apart a level of autonomy that New Delhi had lengthy prolonged to the area.
He married twice. Apart from two daughters from a earlier marriage, Anisha and Farhat, he’s survived by his spouse, Jawahira Begum, and two daughters, Zamshida and Chamshida, and two sons, Nayeem and Naseem.
Regardless of his age and rising frailty, Mr. Geelani remained defiant.
In a video posted online in 2018, Mr. Geelani knocks on the door of his house from the within, telling Indian troopers to let him out in order that he may provide prayers on the funeral of a relative.
“Open the door. I received’t fly away,” Mr. Geelani tells the officers. “We wish to carry out a funeral on your democracy.”
Suhasini Raj in Lucknow, India, contributed reporting.