MADRID — For Yunior García, a Cuban playwright, the swift journey from activism in Havana to exile in Madrid may need been lifted from one in every of his scripts.
It started with the decapitated pigeons at his doorstep, positioned there, he suspects, by brokers of Cuba’s Communist authorities to scare him. Then a pro-regime crowd, scores robust, surrounded his dwelling to disgrace him. He secretly secured a visa for Spain, he stated, and contacts whisked him first to a protected home, then to Havana’s airport.
And identical to that, Mr. García, one of many rising stars within the opposition demonstrations which have rocked Cuba this 12 months, was gone.
“I’m not manufactured from bronze or marble, and I’m not driving a white horse,” Mr. García, 39, informed reporters at a information convention in Madrid on Thursday, a day after his arrival, saying he feared imprisonment and didn’t need to be a martyr. “I’m an individual who’s afraid, with fears and with worries.”
It was a dispiriting loss — some even known as it a betrayal — for Cuba’s pro-democracy protesters who had managed to channel many years of anger over financial failures and desperation attributable to the pandemic right into a second not seen earlier than on the island: a motion on the streets, organized on smartphones and social media, that drew Cubans by the hundreds to demand change.
However that every one got here to a halt on Monday when state safety brokers scuttled a nationwide protest. And days later, one of many motion’s best-known leaders, Mr. García, was sitting in Spain.
To many, Mr. García’s predicament heralded a return to the Cuban authorities’s playbook of suppressing dissidents, which reached heights within the Eighties and 2000s. Critics had been intimidated into fleeing the nation, or in some circumstances, compelled out.
“There’s this sort of recurring, cyclical phenomenon: discredit these voices, silence them, intimidate them,” stated Katrin Hansing, an anthropologist at Baruch Faculty in New York who research Cuba.
However this new technology of exiles is totally different.
They’re younger writers, artists and musicians who, for a time, had been inspired by Cuba’s opening up, even selling their skills to the world.
Lower than a decade in the past, Cuba’s leaders talked of a necessity for change, even for restricted criticism of the system. The nation eradicated the exit visa, permitting Cubans to journey with out official permission and letting a youthful technology pursue training overseas. It made a cope with the USA to reestablish ties, with provisions to broaden the circulation of data.
Hamlet Lavastida, a 38-year-old Cuban artist, was amongst those that had taken benefit of the loosened restrictions. After residing in Poland for a number of years, he went to Germany in 2020 to take up an artist residency. His work typically took goal on the Cuban state: In Might, he exhibited a bit manufactured from cutout paper that included one other Cuban artist’s confession below interrogation by the authorities.
After Mr. Lavastida returned to Havana in June, the authorities arrested him and took him to an interrogation facility the place he was held for 3 months with out cost. He stated he contracted Covid-19 there, with brokers repeatedly questioning him about his paintings and saying he was a terrorist.
“‘Have you learnt who Tony Blinken is?’ they’d ask,” stated Mr. Lavastida, referring to Antony J. Blinken, the U.S. secretary of state. Cuba’s authorities has accused the dissidents of performing on behalf of the USA, which it says is fostering unrest to overthrow the federal government.
In September, the federal government compelled Mr. Lavastida on to a aircraft certain for Poland, the place he has a son. Now again in Berlin, he was charged in Cuba this fall with incitement.
Mónica Baró, a 33-year-old impartial journalist who left Cuba this 12 months for Madrid, stated the latest sample echoed the Black Spring crackdown of 2003, when the federal government imprisoned 75 dissidents and journalists.
This time, nevertheless, the federal government is utilizing techniques that entice much less media consideration, Ms. Baró stated. For instance, fairly than sentencing authorities critics outright to jail, the authorities have detained them for stretches at a time, in an effort to “destabilize everybody emotionally — you and your loved ones,” she stated.
“It’s a form of psychological torture,” Ms. Baró stated.
For Mr. García, it leaves a query: Why had the federal government touted reforms if it wouldn’t tolerate voices like his?
“It’s like they tried perestroika with out glasnost,” he stated, invoking phrases used within the Soviet Union throughout its reform period on the finish of the Chilly Battle. The primary refers to official reforms, the second to the openness that was meant to comply with.
Mr. García made his title within the small however rising world of Cuban theater, pioneering a method by which he would write brief scripts that had been then used as the premise for improvisation. Lots of his works centered round his personal story as a dissident artist.
One play, “Jacuzzi,” informed the tales of three Cubans — a dissident, a Communist and an apathetic younger lady — as they talk about life and politics in a scorching tub. Performances of the play, which premiered in 2017, had been allowed in Cuba, although throughout Havana’s greatest theater pageant, it was ordered to be carried out in a theater that was laborious to achieve, he stated.
Hopes of better change from thawed U.S.-Cuban relations dimmed below the Trump administration, which aggressively rolled again a lot of the ties that had been remade between the international locations, dealing a harmful blow to the Cuban financial system.
By the beginning of 2021, the pandemic was additionally straining the nation’s vaunted well being care system.
In July, starvation and blackouts ignited a wave of demonstrations, as hundreds took to the streets in a present of defiance not seen within the six many years for the reason that Cuban revolution. The federal government responded by arresting a whole bunch.
Mr. García had hoped to mobilize protests once more this fall. He and different activists began Archipiélago, a Fb discussion board whose membership grew to greater than 38,000. They known as for a brand new spherical of protests to be held on Nov. 15, the day Cuba was set to permit overseas vacationers to enter once more.
Mr. García discovered himself within the cross hairs.
On Oct. 22, he stated he returned dwelling to search out the pair of decapitated pigeons. Days later, a whole bunch of presidency supporters gathered at his doorstep, chanting towards him.
“I didn’t see a single neighbor amongst them,” stated Mr. García, who believes the group was transported there by the federal government.
By final week, state-run tv started operating segments saying Mr. García was aiming to violently overthrow the federal government. He took it as a warning that he would quickly be arrested.
Although he had obtained a 90-day visa from the Spanish authorities, Mr. García nonetheless deliberate to affix the Nov. 15 protests. However he was blocked from leaving his dwelling as the federal government stopped demonstrators from gathering.
Shortly afterward, Mr. García stated, two mates sneaked him out of his dwelling to a protected home the place he spent two days earlier than arriving in Spain. The federal government had posted guards in entrance of his dwelling, however Mr. García stated he believed he was not stopped as a result of officers wished him overseas.
The reactions to his departure have been combined on the Fb group he based. The group’s leaders, apparently unaware at first that he had fled, posted messages suggesting he had been kidnapped. Some commenters stated they felt betrayed that he had left.
In Spain, although, Mr. García has discovered welcome.
On Thursday, he walked right into a pizza restaurant the place he was embraced by the proprietor, Eduardo López, who had left Cuba many years earlier than when he was 22.
“I hoped you’ll come right here. I had prayed for it,” he stated.
Mr. García sat down and glanced on the menu. He stated he wished to return to Cuba.
It wasn’t clear when that may be, if ever.
José Bautista contributed reporting from Madrid.